Year: 2014 | Type: Book + Research | Location: Tokyo, Japan | Authors: 塚本由晴 (Yoshiharu Tsukamoto) 貝島桃代 (Momoyo Kaijima) 田中功起 (Koki Tanaka) 中谷礼仁 (Norihito Nakatani) 篠原雅武 (Masatake Shinohara) 佐々木啓 (Kei Sasaki) 能作文徳 (Fuminori Nousaku) 東京工業大学大学院塚本由晴研究室（TITech Yoshiharu Tsukamoto Laboratory) | Publisher: LIXIL
Atelier Bow-Wow’s latest publication, published at the beginning of May 2014, is an accumulation of Atelier Bow-Wow and Yoshiharu Tsukamoto Laboratory’s research on the production of human behavior in public spaces around the world. The book includes discussions with an artist, architectural historian and a philosopher; fieldwork and drawings from public space in cities around the world; summaries of writings from architects, artists and philosophers; and examples of Atelier Bow-Wow’s own work in public space. As members of Yoshiharu Tsukamoto’s laboratory at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we assisted in the preparation of materials for the book. This included reading and summarizing literature from architects, artists and philosophers. I had the job of reading and summarizing in Japanese Cedric Price’s Works II and Phaidon’s book on Francis Alÿs. I also drew the public space drawing of the Tokyo Institute of Technology’s hanami.
東工大花見 Cherry Blossom Viewing at Tokyo Tech
タイム＆タイミング Time and Timing
Works II by Cedric Price, published by the Architectural Association in 1984, introduces five sets of doubles which Cedric Price (famous for his Fun Palace project) uses as guidelines for his architectural design—”Action and inaction,” “Time and timing,” “Uncertainty and delight in the unknown,” “Beneficial change and inevitable aging,” “Free Space and its operational matrix.” He then introduces his projects as they relate to his sets of doubles. In “Time and Timing,” he describes how time can be a crucial tool for design, while timing can determine whether the continued work on a design scheme is even valid or useful. Time, especially with respect to the life span of a structure, plays a pivotal role in Price’s architectural theory and design‚and that life span, a building’s capacity for re-use, is inevitably linked to the building’s initial usefulness. Price builds an argument against the growing trend towards conservation, saying that misplaced loyalty to outdated and redundant social activities alters the social usefulness of the built environment. He proposes strategies that lower the assumed worth of the past use of spaces, allowing society to re-establish use that is more directly relevant to contemporary social and economic issues.
The architect/planner must exercise all his expertise, on being asked for artefactual conditioning, on the relevance of or necessity for doing anything at all(p.19). The one [time] provides the fourth dimension to design, the other [timing] reminds one that to be late can be to be lost… However, to obtain real value from a combination of both time and timing requires both these two measurable and controllable design commodities to be used so as to enable an even looser rein on those factors which are unchartable or at least which may suffer from control and measurement… The built environment is becoming a generous repository of buildings for nervous minds rather than a three-dimensional manifestation of a current optimistic civilization (p.36-7). Instantaneous architectural response to a particular problem is too slow. Architecture must concern itself continually with the socially beneficial distortion of the environment (p.92).
建築家、設計者は、古いものをメンテナンスする必要があるかどうか、何をするにも妥当性や必要性があるかどうかを考えることに持てる力のすべてを行使しなければならない [p.19] タイムは、設計に四つ目の次元を提供し、タイミングは、送れるということが、失うということになりうることを人々に想起させる[…]タイムとタイミングの組合わせから本当の価値を得るには、設計のなかで、その要因をゆるい手綱のように使い、タイムと対ムングを、計測可能で制御することができる有効な要素がある[…]建築界には、臆病な人々に守られた使い道のない建築が蓄積されつつある [p.36-7] それぞれの問題に対する瞬間的な建築の反応は遅すぎる。建築は、絶えず、社会的にためになるような環境のひずみについて気にかけねばなるまい [p.92]
都市の物語 Tale of a City
Born and trained as an architect in Belgium, Francis Alÿs moved to Mexico City in 1986 as part of a French assistance program after the 1985 earthquake. After working in parallel as an architect and artist, he finally quit architecture in the early 1990s and got heavily involved in the contemporary art scene. Early works of his, such as Turista (1994), denounced and tested his own status as a foreigner, challenging him to discover how far one can belong to a place—”am I a participant or just an observer? (11).” Much of Alÿs’ work also explores collective behavior of people in the city. Sleepers (1999-2000) is a series of slide depicting humans and dogs sleeping along the streets of Mexico City, each image shot from the same ground level upon which the sleepers lie. In his collaborative work Zôcalo (1999), he captures in video and camera the movement of the shadow of the flagpole in Mexico City’s main square, the Zôlaco, and the line of people who take refugre in this shade. By showing how social encounters provoke sculptural situations, he “resists the progressive disenchantment of urban space, evoking the function of the polis as place for the expression for collective desires and fears, the stage for mass events and political ceremonies, the site of shared dreams (103).”
When I stepped out of the field of architecture, my first impulse was not to add to the city, but to absorb what was already there, to work with the residues, or with the negative spaces, the holes, the spaces in between. Because of the immense amount of material produced on a daily basis by a huge city like Mexico City, it is very difficult to justify the act of adding another piece of matter to that already saturated environment. My reaction was to insert a story into the city rather than an object. It was my way of affecting a place at a very precise moment of its history, even just for an instant… If the [story] meets the expectations and addresses the anxieties of that society at the right time and place, it may become a story that survives the event itself. At that moment, it has the potential to become an fable or an urban myth (p.25).”